David Lackland SAM is a professor of cross-cultural psychology at the University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. His research interests include the psychology of acculturation and the role of culture in health. Sam has published extensively on young immigrants’ psychological adaptation in general, and from a cross-cultural comparative perspective.
Acculturation theory is used to describe how members of ethnic minorities reconcile their heritage culture with the host culture. To sum up, acculturation is going to learn how to deal with a new cultural situation in order to decrease the stress caused by meeting two different cultures. Acculturation changes lead adaptation, for example, to determine that the individual is able to meet the challenges comes from growing up in the midst of two different cultures. However, changing is a successive character of Child Development. Acculturation studies contribute individual coping to a stressful situation induced by the meeting with an unfamiliar cultural context as well as, learning specific cultural skills in case of making them more delightful. Child development refers to the sequence of changes as arising from either one or two processes, influenced by environmental facts and the child’s learning capacity, also, from the genetic factors. Meanwhile, acculturation is generated by learning phenomenon, development entails both learning and maturation. However, biology and maturation are also central to acculturation. Dr. David Lackland Sam suggested a “modified developmental contextual model” as an alternate outlook to the understanding of the acculturation of children and adolescents
Phil Zuckerman is a professor of sociology and secular studies at Pitzer College in Claremont, California, and he has been a guest professor for two years at the University of Aarhus, Denmark. In 2011, Phil founded the first Secular Studies department in the United Nation.
Secularism, also known as Secularity or Nonreligious is the idea of something being not religious or not connected to any holy places like the church or the mosque, but it does not mean an individual cannot choose to practice or not practice any religion they want, it does mean Religion and Government should be lived separately. Phil is the author of several books, including The Nonreligious (Oxford, 2016), Living the Secular Life (Penguin, 2014), Faith No More (Oxford, 2011), Society Without God (NYU, 2008), and Invitation to the Sociology of Religion (Routledge, 2003).
Dr. Lewis Herrington is the university teacher of Loughborough University London. His work is increasingly situated at the interface of politics, sociology, psychology and history with a focus on suicide terrorism, Islamist extremism, radicalization, cyber-security, and intelligence studies. Lewis tries to make a connection between theory and practice. Drawing on theories from several academic disciplines, Lewis spends much of his time developing explanations for why individuals carry out acts of suicide terrorism.
He states a significant correlation to addiction that is taking place among youth suicide terrorism, meanwhile, substances are strongly forbidden in Islam, this leads them to an increasing level of religiosity and a pathway towards fundamentalism. He explained how taking more attention to addiction can be more contributed to predict or prevent radicalization. In case of the suicide attacker or Home-Grown Jihadist, he added that meanwhile, these men experienced no coercion, conditioning or direct trauma sufficient to explain their decision to volunteer contrasted with members of ISIS, Boko Haram or Hamas, but most of them use drugs right up until the day of their attack. He suggested a method for predicting and preventing occurrence of suicide attack by drawing “a six-step model of radicalization“.
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